Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  • What is Target 2035?
    • Target 2035 is currently an informal alliance of international biomedical scientists from the public and private sectors. It is not a funding body. Our aim is to develop and to apply new technologies to create chemogenomic libraries, chemical and/or biological probes for the entire human proteome using open science by the year 2035.

  • Why create chemical probes to every protein?
    • With the human genome mapped it is now important to generate the tools that will allow the community to determine the functions and disease relevance of every human gene. Among the most impactful research tools are chemical and biological probes (Edwards, A.M. et al. Too many roads not taken Nature (2011), These reagents will catalyze research, lead to the validation of novel therapeutic targets, and ultimately the discovery of better medicines. (Carter, A.J. et al. Target 2035: probing the human proteome, Drug Discov Today (2019),

  • Who is part of Target 2035?
    • Target 2035 comprises researchers world-wide and is coordinated by the SGC ( It includes participants from academia and industry.

  • What are chemical probes?
    • A chemical probe is a compound that selectively modulates the activity of a single protein (or a small group of closely related proteins) in cells at reasonable concentrations (< 1 micromolar), i.e., it is potent, selective and cell active.

  • What are biological probes?
    • Biological probes are monoclonal antibodies and/or other macromolecular affinity reagents shown to be potent and that selectively modulate the activity of a protein target.

  • What is the dark proteome/ dark genome?

Getting involved

  • I’m a researcher how can I get involved in Target 2035?
    • There are different ways to participate in the Target 2035 initiative. Every contribution is welcome - from individual activities to full-blown projects of chemical-probe development from single targets to target families. Please join Target 2035 on JOGL.

  • How can I add/donate a chemical probe (or inhibitor, or ligand, compound) to the Target 2035 effort?
  • How is Target 2035 funded?
    • There is no specific funding for Target 2035 per se (as it is not a funding body). However, the organisers of Target 2035 will support participants in their efforts to obtain more funding for projects that align with Target 2035 goals, for example, by making introductions to potential collaborators with complementary expertise or resources.

  • Does Target 2035 patent the research it produces?
    • All work within the Target 2035 initiative is pre-competitive and the research outputs will be made open access. The goal is to make research probes that are freely available for anyone to use without restriction.